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    Infrastructure is the circulatory system of transport and mobility. An infrastructure designed to meet needs and maintained in good condition is at the heart of an interacting society and economy. We look specifically at the following areas of transport:

    In addition to structural facilities of stations and transport routes, also control and safety systems, regulating facilities as well as necessary ancillary facilities are included.

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    Areas of Expertise

    What it is about

    The demand for transport infrastructure is derived from the volume of traffic to be handled, its temporal distribution and, in the case of public transport, also from the service structures. In addition, quality aspects must be taken into account when assessing the infrastructure. This prevents even minor deviations from causing disruption to the transport system.

    As much infrastructure as necessary

    Ensuring a completely unhindered flow of traffic at peak times or even in the event of major disruptions would require the infrastructure to be designed to an extent that the facilities would rarely be used to full capacity and would most likely also be uneconomical. Funding for infrastructure is usually provided by the public sector. Intraplan is specialised in showing how future infrastructure should be designed to meet needs so that the most favourable ratio between benefits and costs is achieved.

    In hardly any other area of planning, such a tension between frequently changing requirements and the longevity of facilities can be found as in transport infrastructure. Today’s planning and implementation periods for large-scale projects show that the originally intended functionality of a facility is sometimes only given to a limited extent when it is put into operation due to changed framework conditions. For this reason, it is necessary to plan infrastructure expansion in a way that sufficient flexibility is provided for later use.

    Therefore, we do not only look for an exact solution to a specific problem, but are guided by general planning principles gained from many years of experience: the infrastructure in rail transport, for example, should not only be suitable for one timetable, but must allow as many different timetables as possible to be implemented.

    How we support you

    • We derive expansion and new construction measures from current or forecasted traffic requirements and are guided equally by feasibility, functionality and economic efficiency.
    • We also weigh up other possible solutions of operational, traffic or organisational nature, which are generally more cost-effective than construction measures.
    • When designing the infrastructure, we take into account not only the investment costs, but also other aspects such as flexible use of facilities, so that later changes in infrastructure requirements do not automatically require a new expansion.
    • If “local” solutions are not economical or feasible, we think “big picture”: we show which measures elsewhere can help find solutions to local problems.

    What our clients value

    • We propose solutions that not only help to eliminate a current problem, but are also sustainable.
    • We rely on the long-standing and well-founded expertise of our company, which is ensured not least by employees from different disciplines.
    • The derivation of our results is transparent, comprehensible and understandable. This enables our clients not only to understand our proposed solutions, but also to adopt them and convince others.



    Infrastructure demand studies are one of our core competencies. We have proven our experience in a large number of projects. The most extensive projects relate to:

    • Federal transport route planning
    • Munich railway expansion

    What it is about

    In airport master planning, air traffic forecasts are used to provide the planning parameters for the operation of an airport. Relevant planning parameters are, for example, the necessary runway capacities, parking areas, terminal capacities and landside traffic access. The forecast usually also serves the expected operating revenues (charges).

    Air traffic demand forecasts as a foundation

    Our consistent forecasting approach, which maps the development of demand and supply, fully covers the requirements for master planning. In our analyses, market development is considered separately by region and segment. The projection of flight movements is carried out on a route- and time-situation-specific basis. In particular, our forecasts map the airport’s landside connections in a fine-grained manner.

    The parameters used in the requirements analysis and dimensioning must correctly capture the expected traffic structures as a basis for planning. The evaluation of the relevant design values on the basis of a (projected) typical peak day has established itself as a simplifying method for this purpose. We usually prepare corresponding characteristic values as part of initial estimates and benchmarks for our clients.

    For the purposes of detailed master planning, however, this approach is not sufficiently differentiated in our view for the following reasons:

    • Depending on the transport segment, the relevant traffic conditions occur on different days during the year (e.g. pax vs. cargo, hub carriers vs. low cost vs. tourism).
    • This approach does not provide any information on the frequency of design-relevant traffic conditions, which makes the economic assessment more difficult.

    For detailed master planning, we therefore offer the evaluation of segment-specific, statistical parameters on an annual basis, which we have been practising for years in a tried and tested manner.

    For targeted infrastructure planning and avoidance of overcapacity in master planning, we provide our clients with statistical annual parameters in the form of percentiles (99th / 95th percentile – cf. 1% / 5% busy hour rate). In a first step, we extrapolate the total annual traffic using a differentiated analysis procedure consistent with the present forecast. The expected traffic volumes based on this are statistically evaluated in order to derive segment-specific parameters in each case – including a comparison with the situation in the base year. In combination with the percentile evaluation, a revenue-based weighting can then be realised. This creates an adequate decision-making basis for the economic aspects in the detailed master planning.

    How we support you

    • We advise you on the definition of robust and resilient planning parameters as the basis for a balanced capacity provision of all operational elements – also from an economic point of view.
    • We provide you with the corresponding planning parameters, that we derive from the traffic structures in the base year by means of consistent forecasting and extrapolation procedures and that we can justify transparently, also to third parties.
    • We map all aspects of (air) operational traffic handling with specific, tried and tested model modules. “Airside” e.g. arrivals/departures, runway system, taxiways and aprons, parking positions, passenger handling in the terminal, baggage handling, cargo handling; “landside” e.g. road connections (including parking requirements), connections with public transport services, differentiation of employee and visitor traffic.
    • We carry out studies and strategic “what-if” studies on the demand-based development of the expected level of service – e.g. forecast waiting time levels for passenger handling, passenger density per terminal area – both as a basis for strategic decisions and as expert capacity verification.

    What our clients appreciate

    • Our clients appreciate our holistic approach and consulting expertise, which includes all operational, economic and planning law aspects.
    • Our clients value our differentiated, rule-based, consistent and flexibly configurable modelling approach as a guarantor of consistent, reproducible results, which can thus also be ideally integrated into strategic decision-making processes.
    • Clients appreciate the wide-ranging expertise of our stable teams of consultants who, as reinforcement of the client’s expert teams, make the respective problem their own.
    • We react flexibly to evolving requirements and offer results-oriented solutions in the short term. However, we are then also available for further enquiries, also from third parties, as well as for follow-up questions, if necessary, far beyond the project duration.



    We are and were involved in the airport master plans and comparable concepts of Cologne/Bonn, Zurich, Basel-Mulhouse, Hamburg and Vienna airports. We have also provided the basis for master planning and concept development for Stuttgart, Munich and Frankfurt Main airports.

    What it is about

    Increasing demand in long-distance and local public transport often brings access points to the limits of their capacity, especially at major intersections and during peak hours. Whether the measures envisaged to eliminate capacity bottlenecks are sufficient can be assessed by analysing the flow of people and subsequently dimensioning the facilities for pedestrian traffic.

    The focus is on the identification and assessment of critical areas at stops and in large stations with regard to the performance of such facilities. Detailed knowledge of the strength and spatial distribution of people, i.e. travellers, passengers and visitors, is important in this respect.

    Keeping an eye on capacity reserves

    When planning transport facilities, we recommend not only focusing on economic aspects, but also providing for capacity reserves for increases in demand beyond the planning horizon and for deviations from regular operation (incidents). For this purpose, we offer coordinated variation considerations with modified influencing variables in the dimensioning in order to adequately take into account deviations in demand and capacity.

    The dimensioning process provides information on the adequate dimensioning of pedestrian traffic facilities. By comparing the traffic demand with the capacity, critical areas within a traffic station are examined with regard to their performance in regular operation. In this context, the selection of suitable dimensioning values for the examination of capacity is of particular importance.The most heavily demanded periods within a day are decisive. In addition, the distribution of demand within the peak hour and its type of inflow to a critical part of the system must be taken into account.

    With the choice of design criteria, necessary requirements for the dimensioning of a facility part are to be fulfilled. These minimum requirements can also be supplemented by graded criteria for the quality of traffic flow.

    How we support you

    • We analyse the traffic demand at stops and in complex traffic structures according to volume and distribution as well as origin and destination.
    • We determine the future traffic demand, taking into account coordinated structural developments and planned changes in services in the study area and in the vicinity of the transport station under consideration.
    • On this basis, we depict the distribution of traffic demand in the planning periphery of existing and planned traffic structures.
    • We identify critical facility components for passenger flows and consider their performance on the basis of recognised guidelines or our own assessment approaches.

    What our clients appreciate

    • Our clients value our many years of experience in the assessment of complex transport stations using tried and tested modelling tools.
    • Our clients appreciate our knowledge of the fine-grained development of demand in the respective traffic area.
    • Even after completion of the project, you can reach us and build on our experience and personnel continuity on this topic.



    • Review of the passenger traffic facilities in the planned underground traffic stations of the 2nd S-Bahn main line in Munich
    • Examination of the effects of changed traffic demand due to the 2nd S-Bahn main line on the passenger traffic facilities of existing traffic stations at Munich Central Station
    • Review of the stop dimensioning in the planned eco-tube at the Munich-Laim S-Bahn station
    • Distribution of future passenger flows at Hamburg Central Station (passenger flow model)
    • Forecast of passenger flows at Ostkreuz as well as at Warschauer Straße station in Berlin